Lorsqu’un pays se développe, les inégalités s’accroissent dans un premier temps puis elles diminuent. Cette relation, nommé courbe de Kuznets en U renversé. Nous montrons que le capital humain des pays suit une courbe en U inversée, sorte de courbe de Kuznets du capital humain. De plus, la courbe de Kuznets de . Formation et déformation de la courbe de Kuznets environnementale pour les émissions de CO2 (in French). Home; >; Research; >; Publications; >; Formation .

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This page was last edited on 23 Decemberat This becomes a tragedy of the commons where it is most efficient for everyone to pollute and for no one to clean up, and everyone is worse as a result Hardin, We have no references for this item.

Economic inequality Economics curves Environmental economics Environmental social science concepts. However, the “Kuznets effect” associated to GDP per capita is four times smaller in magnitude than the externality of average schooling favouring the decrease of income inequality within countries since Oxford Economic Papers 46 October: Additionally, the status of many key ” ecosystem services ” provided by ecosystems, such as freshwater provision Perman, et al.

Kuznets curve

As internal migration by farmers looking for better-paying jobs in urban hubs causes a significant rural-urban inequality gap the owners of firms would be profiting, while laborers from those industries would see their incomes rise at a kuzjets slower rate and agricultural workers would possibly see their incomes decreaserural populations decrease as urban populations increase.

Journal of Policy Modeling. Retrieved 16 June While such findings are still being debated, it could prove to be important because it poses the concerning question of whether pollution actually begins to decline for good when an economic threshold is reached or whether the decrease is only in local pollutants and pollution is simply exported to poorer developing countries.

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Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Manufacturing and export grew quickly and powerfully. For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: He finds that “little or no attention has been paid to the statistical properties of the data used such as serial dependence or stochastic trends in time series and few tests of model adequacy have been carried out or presented. Regarding the empirical evidence, based on large panels of countries or time series approaches, Fields considers the Kuznets hypothesis refuted.


Then, we turn to inequality in human capital and focus on a Mincerian production function that accounts for diminishing returns to schooling. Download full text from publisher File URL: American Economic Review 45 March: This allows to link your profile to this item.

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. Retrieved 2 February For instance, many of the middle income countries used in Luznets data set were in Latin America, a region with historically high levels of inequality.

As a country develops, the marginal value of cleaning up such pollutants makes a large direct improvement to the quality of citizens’ lives.

Formation et déformation de la Courbe de Kuznets Environnementale pour les émissions de CO2

Suri and Chapman argue that the EKC is not applicable on the global scale, as a net pollution reduction may not actually be occurring globally. Help us Corrections Found an error or omission? Whereas kuznefs mature economies, human capital accrual an estimate of cost that has been incurred but not yet paid takes the place of physical luznets accrual as the main source of growth; and inequality slows growth by lowering education levels because poorer, disadvantaged people lack finance for their education in imperfect credit-markets.

Thursday, December 6, – 1: Kruegerthe authors who initially made the correlation between economic growth, environmental clean-up, and the Kuznets curve, conclude that there is “no evidence that environmental quality deteriorates steadily with economic growth. Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

One explanation of such a progression suggests that early in developmentinvestment opportunities for those who have money multiply, while an influx of cheap rural labor to the cities holds down wages.

Dobson and Ramlogan determine trade openness by the ratio of exports and imports the total trade and the average tariff rate; kuznes is determined by gross primary school enrolment rates, the share of agriculture in total output, the rate of inflation, and cumulative privatization. Agroecology Anthrozoology Behavioral geography Community studies Demography Design ecological environmental Ecological humanities Economics energy thermo Environmental education ethics law science studies Ethnobiology botany ecology zoology Forestry Industrial ecology Integrated geography Permaculture Rural sociology Science, technology and society science studies Sustainability science studies Systems ecology Urban ecology geography metabolism studies.


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This abstract was borrowed from another version of this dourbe. We show that human capital within countries exhibits an inverted U-shaped curve with respect to average schooling, namely a “Kuznets curve of education”.


Thus, even in a country like the US with a high level of income, carbon emissions are not decreasing in accordance with the EKC. Instead, we get a more realistic view of the effect of economic growth and technological changes on environmental quality. He states his unequivocal finding: Deininger and Squire, Have you forgotten your login?

However, one of the main purposes of doing econometrics is to test which apparent relationships RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers. The East Asian miracle has been used to criticize the validity of the Kuznets curve theory. Fogel notes that most of Kuznets’ paper was devoted to explicating the conflicting factors at play.

Economic Growth and Income Inequality. It seems that most indicators of environmental degradation are monotonically rising in income though the ‘ income elasticity ‘ is less than one and is not a simple function of income alone.

Retrieved 18 June In a biography about Simon Kuznets’ scientific methods, economist Robert Fogel noted Kuznets’ own reservations about the “fragility of the data” which underpinned the hypothesis. The hypothesis was first advanced by economist Simon Kuznets in the s and ’60s. Fogel emphasized Kuznets’ opinion that “even if the data turned out to courve valid, they pertained to an extremely limited period of time and to exceptional historical experiences.