Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors (rods and cones), inner retinal cells. Basic mechanisms of electrical field generation in the tissue. Recording protocols Electroretinography (ERG) alone does not give you necessarily a diagnosis. Electroretinogram: An electrical diagnostic test of retinal function in situ. Electro – part Show you the basic clinical test; Show some research examples. The Eye .

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Electrical activity of toad retina.

The Electroretinogram: ERG – Webvision – NCBI Bookshelf

Differential recording in the rat retina using two microelectrodes revealed that the a-wave resulted from extracellular radial current. This page was last modified on July 18,basica The potential changes that were recorded from these cells in response to light stimuli were identical in shape and temporal properties to the ERG c-wave Furthermore, aspartate, by blocking transmission from photoreceptors to bipolar cells, completely removes the b-wave Fig.

To simplify the comparison, the KRG responses are inverted; thus, a positive deflection in this figure means a eleftroretinogram in the electroreinogram concentration of potassium ions. Light absorbance by the visual pigment molecules in the outer segments of the photoreceptors reduces the “dark” current and, therefore, can be viewed as eliciting a “light” current.

Figure 11 Isolating the oscillatory potentials from the bright flash ERG response of the human eye a by applying a digital filter b.


When the rod model Eq. However, we have to remember that the magnitude of the different resistances, and more so, the relationships between them, can also affect the ERG that is measured with extraocular electrodes.

This is the slow pathway that electriretinogram follow flickering stimuli up to 15 Hz. These and other studies reported a light-induced increase in extracellular potassium in the outer and inner plexiform layers. Studies were done in mudpuppy 3637frogfish 4142rabbit 4344cat 112324and monkey 45 Localization of origins of electroretinogram components by intra retinal recording in the intact cat eye.

He reported that a sink for the b-wave was in the distal part of the retina, most probably in the outer plexiform layer, whereas the source was distributed proximally and distally to the sink. After termination of the stimulus, a d-wave develops. A reflection of ON bipolar cell activity. Initially decreased oscillatory potentials, later basicz involve reduced a- and b-wave amplitudes.


Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Light adaptation, rods, and the human cone flicker ERG. These are rod responses that were obtained by electroretinotram subtraction of the cone contribution as described in the text. Figure 27 Analyzing the rod phototransduction in a patient with enhanced SWS cone syndrome.

Figure 15 The effects of changing the diameter of the stimulating light upon the M-wave left column and the extracellular potassium concentration right column.

The data from normal subjects that were recorded in another two laboratories red and blue symbols fall well within the normal range of my laboratory.

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Some of these serve for evaluation of human retinal function in the clinic, whereas others are mainly used for research purposes. Not to be confused with other types of electrography.

Electroretinogram – EyeWiki

P50 evaluates the macular function. The major contribution comes from light-induced activity in ON-center bipolar cells. The bipolar-cell depolarization increases the level of extracellular potassium, subsequently generating a transretinal current. Whereas the STR reflects rod-mediated vision, the M-wave is dominated by the cone system. When a given light stimulus is applied under background illumination that saturates the rod system, the ERG reflects activity in the cone system.

Einthoven W, Jolly WA.

Figure 2b The ERG of a cat in nasics to a 2-sec light stimulus. Another experimental approach to separate rod-mediated vision from cone-mediated vision is based upon the differences in temporal properties between these two visual systems.


Early development of P-II will result in a subnormal a-wave, whereas a slow P-II will be expressed in a supernormal a-wave. Human electroretinogram near the absolute threshold of vision. The M-wave was first described in cold-blooded vertebrates as a negative-going potential change at stimulus onset and offset The importance of adding this low-pass filter to fit the phototransduction model to electroretimogram cone a-wave is illustrated in Fig.