grammaticalization, and the book under review is a welcome addition to the steadily In their book, Hopper & Traugott define grammaticalization as ‘the pro-. Traugott ; Hopper & Traugott []), is a basic type of change that may lead to Claims about “constructions” and grammaticalization in earlier work. Grammaticalization: Paul J. Hopper, Elizabeth Closs Traugott, Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics, Cambridge University Press, second ed., [], xx +.

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Moreover, the documenting of changes can help to reveal the lines along grammaaticalization a language is likely to develop in the future. Particular attention is paid to recent debates over directionality in change and the role of grammaticalization in creolization.

Synopsis of Hopper & Traugott Chap. 2

Newmeyer Limited preview – A well-known example of grammaticalization is that of the process in which the lexical cluster let usfor example in “let us eat”, grammaticalizaton reduced to let’s as in “let’s you and me fight”. The studying and documentation of recurrent clines enable linguists to form general laws of grammaticalization and language change in general. Includes references and index. For an understanding of this process, a distinction needs to be made between lexical itemsor content words, which carry specific lexical meaning, and grammatical items, or function words, with little or no lexical meaning, which serve to express grammatical relationships between the different words in an utterance.

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Applied cognitive linguistics I: HopperElizabeth Closs Traugott No preview available – More specifically, with reference to grammaticalization, bleaching refers to the loss of all or most lexical content of an entity while only its grammatical content is retained, [8] for example James Matisoff described bleaching as “the partial effacement of a morpheme’s semantic features, the stripping away of some of its precise content so it can be used in an abstracter, grammatical-hardware-like way”.

Among recent publications there is a wide range of descriptive studies trying to come up with umbrella definitions and exhaustive lists, while others tend to focus more on its nature and significance, questioning the opportunities and boundaries of grammaticalization.


It is believed that the stages on the cline do not always have a fixed position, but vary. An example is the phrase to up the ante, which incorporates the preposition up a function word in a verb a content word but without up becoming a verb outside of this lexical item.

An important and popular topic which is still debated is the question of unidirectionality. In Grammaticalization Hopper and Traugott state that the cline of grammaticalization has both diachronic and synchronic implications.

Aspect between hkpper and grammar: The authors synthesize work from several areas of linguistics. Since it is the entire phrase to up the ante that is the verb, Hopper and Traugott argue that the word up traugotg cannot be said to have degrammaticalized, a view that is challenged to some extent by parallel usages such as to up the bidto up the paymentto up the deductionsto up the medicationby the fact that in all cases the can be replaced by a possessive my, your, her, Bill’s, etc.

Glottalized and murmured occlusives in Indo-European. Here, the phrase has lost grammatiaclization lexical meaning of “allow us” and has become an auxiliary introducing a suggestion, the pronoun ‘us’ reduced first to a suffix and then to an unanalyzed phoneme.


In addition, most are not limited to grammaticalization but can be applied in the wider context of language change. The overlapping stages of grammaticalization form a chain, generally called a cline. In the process of grammaticalization, an uninflected lexical word or content word is transformed into a grammar word or grammaaticalization word.

Grammaticalization is a process leading from lexemes to grammatical formatives.

Unity and diversity in grammaticalization scenarios pdf. HopperElizabeth Closs Traugott. The following will be a non-exhaustive list of authors who have written about the subject with their individual approaches to the nature of the term ‘grammaticalization’.

This book presents a model grammaticalizatipn event structure for the analysis of aspectual constructions and argument structure constructions in English and other languages. The system can’t perform the operation now.

Get my own profile Cited by View all All Since Citations h-index hoppfr 26 iindex 63 Critics of the theory of grammaticalization have used these difficulties to claim that grammaticalization has no independent status of its own, that all hpoper involved can be described separately from the theory of grammaticalization.


However, phonetic erosion, a common process of language change that can take place with no connection to grammaticalization, is not a necessary property of grammaticalization. The process by which the word leaves its word class and enters another is not sudden, but occurs by a gradual series of individual shifts.

Lehmann also invented a set of ‘parameters’, a method along which grammaticality could be measured both synchronically and diachronically. Lessau notes that “unidirectionality in itself is a predictive assertion in that it selects the general type of possible development it predicts the direction of any given incipient case ,” and unidirectionality also rules out an entire range of development types that do not follow this principle, grammaticalizatioon limiting the amount of possible paths of development.

Though neo-grammarians like Brugmann rejected the separation grzmmaticalization language into distinct “stages” in favour of uniformitarian assumptions, [4] they were positively inclined towards some of these earlier linguists’ hypotheses.

Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing boundinflectional constructions, instead deriving them from content words. Retrieved from ” https: Some recent trends in grammaticalization PJ Hopper Annual review of anthropology 25 1, Some observations frammaticalization the typology of focus and aspect in narrative language PJ Hopper Studies in Language.

That is, it may involve certain typical “path way s”, but the latter hppper to be built out of separate stepping-stones which can often be seen in isolation and whose individual outlines are always distinctly recognizable”. He was thus able to present a notion of the creation of grammatical forms as a legitimate study for linguistics.